What is the pathway for co2 in our respiratory system?​

7 answers
Question:

What is the pathway for co2 in our respiratory system?​

Answers

Explanation:

Isabella: 50-meter freestyle - inadequate oxygenation over a short period of time

anaerobic cellular respiration incomplete breakdown of glucose waste products: lactic acid  traps 2 molecules of ATP for each gram of glucose

Tyler: half marathon- adequate oxygenation of tissue over a long period of time

aerobic cellular respiration complete breakdown of glucose traps 36 molecules of ATP for each gram of glucose waste products: H2O, CO2

Further Explanation:

overall: C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ≈38 ATP

In all eukaryotic cells mitochondria are small cellular organelles bound by membranes, these make most of the chemical energy required for powering the biochemical reactions within the cell. This chemical energy is stored within the molecule ATP which is produced. Respiration in the mitochondria utilizes oxygen for the production of ATP in the Krebs’ or Citric acid cycle via the oxidization of pyruvate( through the process of glycolysis in the cytoplasm).

Oxidative phosphorylation describes a process in which the NADH and FADH2 made in previous steps of respiration process give up electrons in the electron transport chain these are converted it to their previous forms, NADH+ and FAD. Electrons continue to move down the chain the energy they release is used in pumping protons out of the matrix of the mitochondria.

This forms a gradient where there is a differential in the number of protons on either side of the membrane the protons flow or re-enter the matrix through the enzyme ATP synthase, which makes the energy storage molecules of ATP from the reduction of ADP. At the end of the electron transport, three molecules of oxygen accept electrons and protons to form molecules of water...

Glycolysis: occurs in the cytoplasm 2 molecules of ATP are used to cleave glucose into 2 pyruvates, 4 ATP and 2 electron carrying NADH molecules. (2 ATP are utilized for a net ATP of 2) The Citric acid or Kreb's cycle: in the mitochondrial matrix- 6 molecules of CO2 are produced by combining oxygen and the carbon within pyruvate, 2 ATP oxygen molecules, 8 NADH and 2 FADH2. The electron transport chain, ETC: in the inner mitochondrial membrane, 34 ATP, electrons combine with H+ split from 10 NADH, 4 FADH2, renewing the number of electron acceptors and 3 oxygen; this forms 6 H2O, 10 NAD+, 4 FAD.

Within cells, aerobic respiration may not occur due to several factors:

- a lack of inorganic, final electron acceptors -incomplete or lack of a complete electron transport system -missing genes for enzymes within the Kreb's cycle

Thus, they utilize other means for the generation of energy in the form of ATP and to replenish NAD+, an oxidized form of NADH, the main electron carrier in glycolysis. Pyruvate is produced in the cytoplasm via glycolysis- it is also used as an electron acceptor in a process called fermentation.

Learn more about cellular life at

Learn more about cellular respiration at

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Generally, it is always difficult, requiring a large amount of energy to extract electrons from a 2C compound like acetyl CoA, because they are held closer to the nucleus. Therefore C02 production is difficult. However,  in compounds with more than 2C atoms it is easier because the attractive forces of the nucleus  on the electrons  are   reduced, and removal of electrons for  C02 production will be easy.

Therefore, it is logical to add 2C acetyl CoA to 4C oxaloacetate to form 6C-Citrate, and   electrons extracted for C02 molecules liberation as 6C-succinate is converted to 5C-alpha-ketoglutaric and when the latter compound is converted to 4C-succinate. These are many Carbon compounds with easy electrons loss for the liberation of C02 in sequence.

The above  steps will be easier than the direct oxidation of 2C acetyl CoA to liberate two molecules of C02.

Explanation:

It is easier to remove electrons and produce CO2 from compounds with three or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA.

Explanation:Like the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria. Almost all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are soluble, with the single exception of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, which is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Unlike glycolysis, the citric acid cycle is a closed loop: the last part of the pathway regenerates the compound used in the first step. The eight steps of the cycle are a series of redox, dehydration, hydration, and decarboxylation reactions that produce two carbon dioxide molecules, one GTP/ATP, and reduced forms of NADH and FADH2. This is considered an aerobic pathway because the NADH and FADH2 produced must transfer their electrons to the next pathway in the system, which will use oxygen.

The given question is incomplete as the four possible explanations or options are not provided, however, the correct options are as follows:

A) More ATP is produced per CO2 released in cyclic processes than in linear processes.

B) It is easier to remove electrons and produce CO2 from compounds with three or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA.

C) Redox reactions that simultaneously produce CO2 and NADH occur only in cyclic processes.

D) Cyclic processes, such as the citric acid cycle, require a different mechanism of ATP synthesis than linear processes, such as glycolysis.

The correct answer would be - option B

Explanation:

Circular pathways or the cycles are able to carry out two or more than two entry and exit points for the substrate enzyme and products, So it is well suited for amphibolic reactions.

In a linear pathway, one reaction with particular substrate or reactants  and result in products through the pathway completes the pathway, and the second reaction would be an independent event.

In citric acid cycle It is easier to eliminate electrons and gain carbon dioxide from compounds with 3 carbon or more carbon atoms than from a two-carbon compound such as acetyl CoA. pyruvate is 3 C compound while acetyl CoA is two carbon.

Thus, the correct answer is - option B

Aerobic Respiration

Explanation:

Aerobic respiration utilizes Oxygen.Aerobic breath happens in most cells.The measure of energy discharged is high which is around 36-38 ATP atoms.   The stages engaged with aerobic respiration are glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain.The items which are formed in aerobic respiration are Carbon dioxide, Water and ATP.The reaction's site of aerobic respiration are Mitochondria and Cytoplasm. The reactants included are glucose and oxygen.The ignition is complete.

alveoli

Explanation:

because carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries to the air in the alveoli

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a waste product of cellular metabolism. You get rid of it when you breathe out (exhale). This gas is transported in the opposite direction to oxygen: It passes from the bloodstream – across the lining of the air sacs – into the lungs and out into the open.

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