Temperature will change in a system until this is reached...

8 answers
Question:

Temperature will change in a system until this is reached...

Answers

1) The answer is: Energy must have been absorbed from the surrounding environment.

There are two types of reaction:  

1) Endothermic reaction (ΔH > 0, chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it releases).  In endothermic reactions heat is reactant.

Because products have higher energy, this example is endothermic reaction.

2) Exothermic reaction (chemical reaction that releases more energy than it absorbs).

2) The answer is: A reversible reaction contains a forward reaction, which occurs when reactants form products, and a reverse reaction, which occurs when products form reactants.

For example, balanced reversible chemical reaction: N₂ + 3H₂ ⇄ 2NH₃.

Nitrogen and hydrogen are reactants and ammonia is product of reaction. Reaction goes in both direction. Ammonia is synthesized from nitrogen and hydrogen and ammonia decomposes on nitrogen and hydrogen.

The amount of substance of reactants and products of reaction do not change when chemical reaction is in chemical equilibrium.  

In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which not change with time. Speed of direct and irreversible chemical reaction are equal

3) The answer is: The reaction rate of the forward reaction would increase in order to decrease the number of particles.

According to Le Chatelier's Principle the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change.

The equilibrium shift to the right, so more product (ammonia) will be produced.

There are less molecules of ammonia than molecules of hydrogen and nitrogen. For every two molecules of ammonia, there are four molecules of hydrogen and nitrogen.

4) The answer is: The increase in energy will cause the reactants' particles to move faster, which will increase their temperature and lead to a faster reaction rate.

The reaction rate is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.

The collision theory states that a certain fraction of the collisions (successful collisions) cause significant chemical change.  

The successful collisions must have enough energy (activation energy).

Chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.

Particles are in constant, random motion and possess kinetic energy, molecules faster and have more collisions.  

5) The answer is: When a reaction is at chemical equilibrium, a change in the system will cause the system to shift in the direction that will balance the change and help the reaction regain chemical equilibrium.

For example, chemical reaction: heat + NH₄⁺ + OH⁻ ⇄ NH₃ + H₂O.

According to Le Chatelier's Principle, the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change, because heat is increased, system consume that heat, so equilibrium is shifted to right, by decreasing concentration of reactants and increasing concentration of product.

[tex]\Delta s\ =\ 21.33\ J/K[/tex]

Explanation:

Given,

Mass of the ice = [tex]m_i\ =\ 13.8\ kg\ =\ 0.0138\ kg[/tex]Temperature of the ice = [tex]T_i\ =\ 0^o\ C[/tex]Mass of the original water = [tex]m_w\ =\ 134\ g\ =\ 0.134\ kg[/tex]Temperature of the original water = [tex]T_w\ =\ 70.0^o\ C[/tex]Specific heat of water = [tex]S_w\ =\ 4190\ J/kg K[/tex]Latent heat of fusion of ice = [tex]L_f\ =\ 333\ kJ/kg[/tex]

Let T be the final temperature of the mixture,

Therefore From the law of mixing, heat loss by the water is equal to the heat gained by the ice,

[tex]m_iL_f\ +\ m_is_w(T_f\ -\ 0)\ =\ m_ws_w(T_w\ -\ T_f)\\\Rightarrow 333000\times 0.0138\ +\ 0.0138\times 4190T_f\ =\ 0.134\times 4190\times(70.7\ -\ T_f)\\\Rightarrow 4595.4\ +\ 57.96T_f\ =\ 39789.96\ -\ 562.8T_f\\\Rightarrow 620.76T_f\ =\ 35194.56\\\Rightarrow T_f\ =\ \dfrac{35194.56}{620.76}\\\Rightarrow T_f\ =\ 56.69^o\ C[/tex]

Now, We know that,

Change in the entropy,

[tex]\Delta s\ =\ s_f\ -\ s_i\ =\ \dfrac{Q}{T}\\\Rightarrow \displaystyle\int_{s_i}^{s_f} ds\ =\ \displaystyle\int_{T_i}^{T_f}\dfrac{msdT}{T}\\\Rightarrow \Delta s =\ ms \ln \left (\dfrac{T_i}{T_f}\ \right )\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,eqn (1)[/tex]

Now, change in entropy for the ice at 0^o\ C to convert into 0^o\ C water.

[tex]\Delta s_1\ =\ \dfrac{Q}{T}\\\Rightarrow \Delta s_1\ =\ \dfrac{m_iL_f}{T}\ =\ \dfrac{0.0138\times 333000}{273.15}\ =\ 16.82\ J/K.[/tex]

Change in entropy of the water converted from ice  from [tex]273.15\ K[/tex] to water 330.11 K water.

From the equation (1),

[tex]\therefore \Delta s_2\ =\ ms \ln \left (\dfrac{T_i}{T_f}\ \right )\\\Rightarrow \Delta s_2\ =\ 0.0138\times 4190\times \ln \left (\dfrac{273.15}{330.11}\ \right )\\\Rightarrow \Delta s_2\ =\ 6.88\ J/K[/tex]

Change in entropy of the original water from the temperature 342.85 K to 330.11 K

From the equation (1),

[tex]\therefore \Delta s_3\ =\ ms \ln \left (\dfrac{T_i}{T_f}\ \right )\\\Rightarrow \Delta s_3\ =\ 0.134\times 4190\times \ln \left (\dfrac{330.11}{343.85} \right )\\\Rightarrow \Delta s_3\ =\ -2.36\ J/K[/tex]

Total entropy change = [tex]\Delta s\ =\ \Delta s_1\ +\ \Delta s_2\ +\ \Delta s_3\\\Rightarrow \Delta s\ =\ (16.82\ +\ 6.88\ -\ 2.36)\ J/K\\\Rightarrow \Delta s\ =\ 21.33\ J/K.[/tex]

Hence, the change in entropy of the system form then untill the system reaches the final temperature is 21.33 J/K

[tex]$ S_2 - S_1 = -0.1104 \: \: kJ/kg.K$[/tex]

The entropy change of the carbon dioxide is -0.1104 kJ/kg.K

Explanation:

We are given that carbon dioxide undergoes a process in a closed system.

We are asked to find the entropy change of the carbon dioxide  with the assumption that the specific heats are constant.

The entropy change of the carbon dioxide is given by

[tex]$ S_2 - S_1 = C_p \ln (\frac{T_2}{T_1}) - R\ln (\frac{P_2}{P_1}) $[/tex]

Where Cp is the specific heat constant

Cp = 0.846 kJ/kg.K

R is the universal gas constant

R = 0.1889 kJ/kg.K

T₁ and T₂ is the initial and final temperature of carbon dioxide.

P₁ and P₂ is the initial and final pressure of carbon dioxide.

[tex]$ S_2 - S_1 = 0.846 \ln (\frac{800}{400}) - 0.1889\ln (\frac{2000}{50}) $[/tex]

[tex]$ S_2 - S_1 = 0.846(0.69315) - 0.1889(3.6888) $[/tex]

[tex]$ S_2 - S_1 = 0.5864 - 0.6968 $[/tex]

[tex]$ S_2 - S_1 = -0.1104 \: \: kJ/kg.K$[/tex]

Therefore, the entropy change of the carbon dioxide is -0.1104 kJ/kg.K

[tex]\Delta S=-0.11\frac{kJ}{kg*K}[/tex]

Explanation:

Hello,

In this case, we can compute the entropy change by using the following equation containing both pressure and temperature:

[tex]\Delta S=Cp\ ln(\frac{T_2}{T_1} )-R\ ln(\frac{p_2}{p_1} )[/tex]

Thus, we use the given data to obtain (2 MPa = 2000 kPa):

[tex]\Delta S=0.846\frac{kJ}{kg*K} \ ln(\frac{800K}{400K} )-0.1889\frac{kJ}{kg*K} \ ln(\frac{2000kPa}{50kPa} )\\\\\Delta S=-0.11\frac{kJ}{kg*K}[/tex]

Best regards.

Explanation:

Let us take the equilibrium temperature is T.

Now, the heat absorbed by the ice is equal to the heat lost to the water.

Therefore, the formula will be as follows.

    [tex]m_{water} \times C_{water} (T - 87.3) + m_{ice} \times L_{f} + m_{ice} \times C_{water} (T - 0) = 0[/tex]

Therefore, putting the given values into the above formula as follows.

              [tex]m_{water} \times C_{water} (T - 87.3) + m_{ice} \times L_{f} + m_{ice} \times C_{water} (T - 0) = 0[/tex]

          [tex]150 g \times 4190 J/kg K (T - 87.3) + 0.0102 kg \times 333 kJ/kg + m_{ice} \times C_{water} (T - 0) = 0[/tex]      

                     628500T - 54868050 + 3.3966 + 42.738T = 0

                           T = [tex]\frac{54868046.6}{628542.738}[/tex]

                               = [tex]87.29^{o}C[/tex]

or,                           = (87.29 + 273.15)K

                               = 360.44 K

Since, formula for entropy change of ice is as follows.

               [tex]\Delta S_{ice} = \frac{m_{ice} \times L_{f}}{T_{ice}} + m_{ice} C ln \frac{T}{T_{melting}}[/tex]

                              = [tex]\frac{0.0102 [\frac{333000}{273.15} + 4190 \times ln (\frac{360.44}{273.15})][/tex]

                              = [tex]0.0102 \times 2381.015[/tex]

                              = 24.286 J/K

Entropy change for water ([tex]\Delta S_{water}[/tex]) = [tex]m_{ice} \times C \times ln (\frac{T}{T_{initial})}[/tex]

                                   = [tex]0.0102 \times 4190 \times ln \frac{360.44}{360.45}[/tex]

                                  = [tex]-1.186 \times 10^{-3}[/tex] J/K

Therefore, calculate the net change in entropy as follows.

                 [tex]\Delta S = \Delta S_{water} + \Delta S_{ice}[/tex]

                              = [tex]-1.186 \times 10^{-3} + 24.286[/tex] J/K

                              = 24.28481 J/K

Thus, we can conclude that the net entropy change of the system from then until the system reaches the final (equilibrium) temperature is 24.28481 J/K.

The change in entropy is found to be 0.85244 KJ/k

Explanation:

In order to solve this question, we first need to find the ration of temperature for both state 1 and state 2. For that, we can use Charles' law. Because the volume of the tank is constant.

P1/T1 = P2/T2

T2/T1 = P2/P1

T2/T1 = 180 KPa/120KPa

T2/T1 = 1.5

Now, the change in entropy is given as:

ΔS = m(s2 - s1)

where,

s2 = Cv ln(T2/T1)

s1 = R ln(V2/V1)

ΔS = change in entropy

m = mass of CO2 = 3.2 kg

Therefore,

ΔS = m[Cv ln(T2/T1) - R ln(V2/V1)]

Since, V1 = V2, therefore,

ΔS = mCv ln(T2/T1)

Cv at 300 k for carbondioxide is 0.657 KJ/Kg.K

Therefore,

ΔS = (3.2 kg)(0.657 KJ/kg.k) ln(1.5)

ΔS = 0.85244 KJ/k

This would be canberra.

Hydrogen is the most abundant element on the periodic table..hope it .

Similar Solved Works

10 answers

I need help fast!! (ill give you some points) if could help me on any of them. its literal equations

I need help fast!! (ill give you some points) if could help me on any of them. its literal equations [tex]I need help fast!! (ill give you some points) if could help me on any of them. its literal equation[/tex]...
3 answers

On the way to a basketball game, five students rode in a car and the rest divided into three buses equally. how many students

On the way to a basketball game, five students rode in a car and the rest divided into three buses equally. how many students were in each bus if there were 53 students on the trip...
10 answers

Which would make an effective thesis for an essay on the cause of the french revolution?

Which would make an effective thesis for an essay on the cause of the french revolution?...
4 answers

Create two functions that add up to 3 x^2 -3x +5​

Create two functions that add up to 3 x^2 -3x +5​...
9 answers

How many moles of water, h2o, contain 2.0×1022 molecules of water? (see the hints for assistance in interpreting scientific

How many moles of water, h2o, contain 2.0×1022 molecules of water? (see the hints for assistance in interpreting scientific notation.) express the quantity in moles to two significant figures....
4 answers

Freud was a influential and controversial psychologist who believed that psychology should study the unconscious mind. Describe

Freud was a influential and controversial psychologist who believed that psychology should study the unconscious mind. Describe the two books Freud published in the early 1900s...
4 answers

Which of these resources will most likely be depleted first?A Wind B Solar energy C Fossil fuels D Water

Which of these resources will most likely be depleted first? A Wind B Solar energy C Fossil fuels D Water...
3 answers

Complete the table for each value of m. an the table be used to show that the expression are equivalent? explainit is qustion 4. i really

Complete the table for each value of m. an the table be used to show that the expression are equivalent? explain it is qustion 4. i really need help [tex]Complete the table for each value of m. an the table be used to show that the expression are equiva[/tex]...
3 answers

2 Points Which of the following best describes the relationship between (x - 5) and the polynomial 2x2 - 7x- 15? O A. It is impossible

2 Points Which of the following best describes the relationship between (x - 5) and the polynomial 2x2 - 7x- 15? O A. It is impossible to tell whether (x - 5) is a factor. O B. (x-5) is a factor O C. (x - 5) is not a factor. SUBMIT...
4 answers

What are 2ordered pairs that are 5.5 units apart

What are 2ordered pairs that are 5.5 units apart...
5 answers

Alandscape service charges customers a one-time fee and an hourly rate. the one-time fee is $50. for

Alandscape service charges customers a one-time fee and an hourly rate. the one-time fee is $50. for 5 hours of work they charge $150. *write an equation in point slope form. *how much does the landscape service charge for 15 hours of work?...
4 answers

What is the greatest common factor of 40 and 30?A А1220B6010D 5

What is the greatest common factor of 40 and 30? A А 1220 B 60 10 D 5...
8 answers

Acadia is beautiful even in the rain and fog, but the park still doesn't have many sandy beaches, and

Acadia is beautiful even in the rain and fog, but the park still doesn't have many sandy beaches, and this is surely not a sandy beach, the rocks are granite, broken off the granite bedrock. Why aren't there sandy beaches?...
10 answers

Asap the purpose of capillary tubes is to: (pick more than one) a.) reverse the flow of blood b.) allow

Asap the purpose of capillary tubes is to: (pick more than one) a.) reverse the flow of blood b.) allow blood to complete a path between arteries and veins c.) permit oxygen and nutrients to be absorbed by cells d.) provide a means for cell wastes to enter the blood stream...
3 answers

Find the value of p that makes the linear graph y=p-3x pass through the point where the lines 4x-y=6

Find the value of p that makes the linear graph y=p-3x pass through the point where the lines 4x-y=6 and 2x-5y=12 [tex]Find the value of p that makes the linear graph y=p-3x pass through the point where the lines 4x-y=6[/tex]...
1 answer

Jake is writing an article for his school magazine on how the measure of force on the shoulder joint

Jake is writing an article for his school magazine on how the measure of force on the shoulder joint causes it to rotate. What specific topic is Jake writing about?...
4 answers

Review the first three paragraphs of the passage,which begin on page 1 and end on page 2. Howare these paragraphs connected to

Review the first three paragraphs of the passage, which begin on page 1 and end on page 2. How are these paragraphs connected to the idea of the "four essential human freedoms" on pages 3-4? They introduce a problem facing the world, and the four freedoms present a long-term solution. They suggest...
4 answers

02 dood time remaining 51: 06 what is the range of this function? has bathtub is clogged and is draining

02 dood time remaining 51: 06 what is the range of this function? has bathtub is clogged and is draining at a rate of 15 gallons of water per minute. the table shows that the amount of water remaining in the bathtub, v. is a function of the time in minutes, that it has been draining all real number...
2 answers

Please if you know trigonometry please drop your snap or anything I really need help on my math work because I need to raise

Please if you know trigonometry please drop your snap or anything I really need help on my math work because I need to raise my grades..Please help me out...
7 answers

Please :) Dario is the kicker for his high school football team. The path of the football when kicked

please :) Dario is the kicker for his high school football team. The path of the football when kicked can be represented by the quadratic function LaTeX: y=-16x^2+85xy = − 16 x 2 + 85 x, where x is the horizontal distance (in feet) and y is the height (in feet). How far does Dario kick the footbal...

-- 0.024907--